Heart sounds and murmurs
The University of Dundee's human Heart Sounds and Murmurs website (www.dundee.ac.uk/medther/Cardiology/hsmur.html) is ideal for a basic introduction or a quick refresher of heart sounds and murmurs. It includes audio files of examples of S3, S4, gallop rhythm, aortic stenosis, aortic regurgitation, mitral stenosis, mitral regurgitation, pulmonary stenosis, atrial fibrillation, and pericardial rubs. Each sound is accompanied by a brief description of the physiology behind it, where to hear it, and what else might be found on examination.
For more detail about auscultation findings visit Blaufuss Multimedia (www.blaufuss.org). Each sound recording is accompanied by a sound wave diagram to help you understand which noises correspond to each heart sound, added sounds, or murmurs. After the tutorial test your ability to distinguish between different heart sounds and murmurs with the quiz, which gives detailed feedback.
Blaufuss also offers an interactive, animated cardiac cycle that shows blood flow through the heart accompanied by